Target name

P31751: RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase

  Protein function

AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.

  Database links

Uniprot primary ID P31751
PDB ID 3E8D 1MRY 2JDR 2UW9 1O6K 1P6S 2XH5 1O6L 1GZK 1GZN 3D0E 2X39 3E87 3E88 1GZO 2JDO 1MRV
DrugBank ID
BioGrid ID 106711
PharmGKB ID PA24685
STRING ID 9606.ENSP00000375892
IntAct ID P31751
DMDM 1170703
Reactome R-HSA-111447 R-HSA-165181 R-HSA-1358803 R-HSA-1257604 R-HSA-114604 R-HSA-165160 R-HSA-198323 R-HSA-389513 R-HSA-198693 R-HSA-199418 R-HSA-392451 R-HSA-5674400 R-HSA-1445148 R-HSA-165158 R-HSA-3769402 R-HSA-389357 R-HSA-5218920 R-HSA-5628897 R-HSA-211163
SignaLink P31751
Entrez Gene (Gene ID) 208
BindingDB P31751

  Model Performance Metrics

Fingerprint type Sensitivity SEN_std Specificity SPE_std Accuracy ACC_std F1-score F1-score_std AUC AUC_std MCC MCC_std Download model
FP2 fingerprints 0.914 0.007 0.926 0.005 0.920 0.000 0.919 0.003 0.970 0.000 0.841 0.006 Download
Estate fingerprints 0.860 0.000 0.860 0.004 0.860 0.000 0.860 0.000 0.925 0.005 0.717 0.005 Download
MACCS fingerprints 0.925 0.005 0.835 0.004 0.880 0.000 0.888 0.004 0.950 0.000 0.767 0.005 Download
Daylight fingerprints 0.861 0.003 0.891 0.007 0.876 0.005 0.874 0.005 0.912 0.004 0.752 0.006 Download
ECFP2 fingerprints 0.970 0.000 0.952 0.004 0.961 0.003 0.961 0.003 0.990 0.000 0.924 0.005 Download
ECFP4 fingerprints 0.960 0.000 0.980 0.000 0.970 0.000 0.970 0.000 0.990 0.000 0.950 0.000 Download
ECFP6 fingerprints 0.954 0.005 1.000 0.000 0.977 0.005 0.977 0.005 0.990 0.000 0.956 0.005 Download

  Download datasets

Positive dataset Negative dataset

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